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Timothy Shelton » Welcome to Mr. Shelton's Class

Welcome to Mr. Shelton's Class

Welcome to our Criminal Justice I & II and CARS I classes page. Please email me with any questions about these classes. To check your grades and attendance, click on the Information Now link at the top of the page. To get assistance with your INow username and password, please call the LaVergne High office at (615) 904-3870.

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CJ I 1st Nine Weeks Benchmark Study Guide, Part 2

This is the completed study guide, with information filled in, that we reviewed in class on Monday, 9/24/18. This is to be studied along with the study guide information we went over in class on Friday 9/21/18.
  • After frankpledge, night watches began in England. They would watch for crimes at night. They were not paid. They would sound an alarm called the “hue and cry.”
  • Night watches carried over into the 1800s and started in America too.
  • Thief-takers started in England, too. Henry Fielding started a group of thief-takers called the “Bow Street Runners” in 1749. They are considered the “world’s first detective agency.”
  • In 1801, Boston started paying night-watchmen 50 cents per shift; first city to pay them in the US.
  • In 1829, England passed the Metropolitan Police Act, lead by Sir Robert Peel, that created the “world’s first modern police department” in London, England.

  *The first police force in London was guided by Peel’s Nine Principles.

  *Peel is known as the “father of modern policing”.

  *Peel’s principles were designed to build public trust between police and public; kept police and politics separate.

*   In 1833, Philadelphia started the first day-watch in America.

  • NYC had America’s first true police force. They first put them in uniform in 1853.
  • Early in American policing, New York city police were corrupt because of the influence of William “Boss” Tweed and his Tammany Hall political machine. This “corrupt era” was called the “political era”.
  • In America, police were used BY politicians to buy votes/force people to vote for certain politicians. American police were deeply involved in politics – but not British police. American police were also far more likely to use physical force than British police.
  • This corrupt “political era” lasted from the mid-1800s into the early 1900s.
  • In 1892, Charles Parkhurst delivered a sermon against Tammany Hall and helped launch a reform movement against the corrupt police in NYC.
  • In the early 1900s, August Vollmer, who was police chief in Berkeley, CA, became a leader in making law enforcement a true profession. His ideas lead helped lead American policing into a new “reform era” by the 1930s.
  • Vollmer’s ideas for reform included removing police from politics, more education and training for law enforcement officers, job specialization (bureaucracy) and hierarchy/military-style chain of command.
  • Vollmer had been the first police chief to use patrol vehicles and to use fingerprinting technology in American policing. He also helped create a college degree program for law enforcement.
  • In 1929, the Wickersham Commission made recommendations based on August Vollmer’s ideas for reform.
  • The “reform era” lasted from around 1930 until around 1970.
  • Policing became SO professional and SO focused on making arrests that distrust increased. By the Civil Rights Era, arrests were skyrocketing in minority communities. New strategies were needed.
  • “Community policing” became the new way of policing in a new “community era” starting in the 1970s. seeking a balance in positive trusting relationships between communities and police while enforcing criminal laws.
  • In the early 1970s, “scientific policing” also began. Social scientists carried out the Kansas City Experiment in 1974. It was the FIRST large scale study of policing practices. MANY have followed since.
    • In the 1990s, the Clinton Administration and Congress passed a law that promised federal funding for 100,000 new police on American streets. The goal was to force states to pass Three-Strikes laws and to have local police take part in federally lead “Community Oriented Policing Services” (ALSO KNOWN AS “COPS”).
    • After 9/11/2001, the federal government has poured hundreds of millions of dollars in surplus military equipment and grant money for local police departments to upgrade their equipment and technology to a more military level.



    • Federal courts get their power from Article III of the US Constitution and laws passed by Congress.
    • Tennessee courts get their power from Article VI of the Tennessee Constitution.
    • The appellate courts in Tennessee are the Tennessee Supreme Court, Tennessee Court of Appeals and Tennessee Court of Criminal Appeals.
    • The trial courts in Tennessee are the Circuit Court, Chancery Court and General Sessions courts.